Table of contents

Chapter 1: Classification of AI Systems as High-Risk

Article 6: Classification Rules for High-Risk AI Systems

Article 7: Amendments to Annex III

Chapter 2: Requirements for High-Risk AI Systems

Article 8: Compliance with the Requirements

Article 9: Risk Management System

Article 10: Data and Data Governance

Article 11: Technical Documentation

Article 12: Record-Keeping

Article 13: Transparency and Provision of Information to Deployers

Article 14: Human Oversight

Article 15: Accuracy, Robustness and Cybersecurity

Chapter 3: Obligations of Providers and Deployers of High-Risk AI Systems and Other Parties

Article 16: Obligations of Providers of High-Risk AI Systems

Article 17: Quality Management System

Article 18: Documentation Keeping

Article 20: Automatically Generated Logs

Article 21: Corrective Actions and Duty of Information

Article 23: Cooperation with Competent Authorities

Article 25: Authorised Representatives

Article 26: Obligations of Importers

Article 27: Obligations of Distributors

Article 28: Responsibilities Along the AI Value Chain

Article 29: Obligations of Deployers of High-Risk AI Systems

Chapter 4: Notifying Authorities and Notified Bodies

Article 30: Notifying Authorities

Article 31: Application of a Conformity Assessment Body for Notification

Article 32: Notification Procedure

Article 33: Requirements Relating to Notified Bodies

Article 33a: Presumption of Conformity with Requirements Relating to Notified Bodies

Article 34: Subsidiaries of and Subcontracting by Notified Bodies

Article 34a: Operational Obligations of Notified Bodies

Article 35: Identification Numbers and Lists of Notified Bodies Designated Under this Regulation

Article 36: Changes to Notifications

Article 37: Challenge to the Competence of Notified Bodies

Article 38: Coordination of Notified Bodies

Article 39: Conformity Assessment Bodies of Third Countries

Chapter 5: Standards, Conformity Assessment, Certificates, Registration

Article 40: Harmonised Standards and Standardisation Deliverables

Article 41: Common Specifications

Article 42: Presumption of Conformity with Certain Requirements

Article 43: Conformity Assessment

Article 44: Certificates

Article 46: Information Obligations of Notified Bodies

Article 47: Derogation from Conformity Assessment Procedure

Article 48: EU Declaration of Conformity

Article 49: CE Marking of Conformity

Article 51: Registration

Chapter 1: Post-Market Monitoring

Article 61: Post-Market Monitoring by Providers and Post-Market Monitoring Plan for High-Risk AI Systems

Chapter 2: Sharing of Information on Serious Incidents

Article 62: Reporting of Serious Incidents

Chapter 3: Enforcement

Article 63: Market Surveillance and Control of AI Systems in the Union Market

Article 63a: Mutual Assistance, Market Surveillance and Control of General Purpose AI Systems

Article 63b: Supervision of Testing in Real World Conditions by Market Surveillance Authorities

Article 64: Powers of Authorities Protecting Fundamental Rights

Article 65: Procedure for Dealing with AI Systems Presenting a Risk at National Level

Article 65a: Procedure for Dealing with AI Systems Classified by the Provider as a Not High-Risk in Application of Annex III

Article 66: Union Safeguard Procedure

Article 67: Compliant AI Systems Which Present a Risk

Article 68: Formal Non-Compliance

Article 68a: EU AI Testing Support Structures in the Area of Artificial Intelligence

Chapter 3b: Remedies

Article 68a(1): Right to Lodge a Complaint with a Market Surveillance Authority

Article 68c: A Right to Explanation of Individual Decision-Making

Article 68d: Amendment to Directive (EU) 2020/1828

Article 68e: Reporting of Breaches and Protection of Reporting Persons

Chapter 3c: Supervision, Investigation, Enforcement and Monitoring in Respect of Providers of General Purpose AI Models

Article 68f: Enforcement of Obligations on Providers of General Purpose AI Models

Article 68g : Monitoring Actions

Article 68h: Alerts of Systemic Risks by the Scientific Panel

Article 68i: Power to Request Documentation and Information

Article 68j: Power to Conduct Evaluations

Article 68k: Power to Request Measures

Article 68m: Procedural Rights of Economic Operators of the General Purpose AI Model

Article 10: Data and Data Governance

1. High-risk AI systems which make use of techniques involving the training of models with data shall be developed on the basis of training, validation and testing data sets that meet the quality criteria referred to in paragraphs 2 to 5 whenever such datasets are used.

2. Training, validation and testing data sets shall be subject to appropriate data governance and management practices appropriate for the intended purpose of the AI system. Those practices shall concern in particular:

(a) the relevant design choices;

(aa) data collection processes and origin of data, and in the case of personal data, the original purpose of data collection;

(b) [deleted];

(c) relevant data preparation processing operations, such as annotation, labelling, cleaning, updating, enrichment and aggregation;

(d) the formulation of assumptions, notably with respect to the information that the data are supposed to measure and represent;

(e) an assessment of the availability, quantity and suitability of the data sets that are needed;

(f) examination in view of possible biases that are likely to affect the health and safety of persons, negatively impact fundamental rights or lead to discrimination prohibited under Union law, especially where data outputs influence inputs for future operations;

(fa) appropriate measures to detect, prevent and mitigate possible biases identified according to point f;

(g) the identification of relevant data gaps or shortcomings that prevent compliance with this Regulation, and how those gaps and shortcomings can be addressed.

3. Training, validation and testing datasets shall be relevant, sufficiently representative, and to the best extent possible, free of errors and complete in view of the intended purpose. They shall have the appropriate statistical properties, including, where applicable, as regards the persons or groups of persons in relation to whom the high-risk AI system is intended to be used. These characteristics of the data sets may be met at the level of individual data sets or a combination thereof.

4. Datasets shall take into account, to the extent required by the intended purpose, the characteristics or elements that are particular to the specific geographical, contextual, behavioural or functional setting within which the high-risk AI system is intended to be used.

5. To the extent that it is strictly necessary for the purposes of ensuring bias detection and correction in relation to the high-risk AI systems in accordance with the second paragraph, point f and fa, the providers of such systems may exceptionally process special categories of personal data referred to in Article 9(1) of Regulation (EU) 2016/679, Article 10 of Directive (EU) 2016/680 and Article 10(1) of Regulation (EU) 2018/1725, subject to appropriate safeguards for the fundamental rights and freedoms of natural persons. In addition to provisions set out in the Regulation (EU) 2016/679, Directive (EU) 2016/680 and Regulation (EU) 2018/1725, all the following conditions shall apply in order for such processing to occur:

(a) the bias detection and correction cannot be effectively fulfilled by processing other data, including synthetic or anonymised data;

(b) the special categories of personal data processed for the purpose of this paragraph are subject to technical limitations on the re-use of the personal data and state of the art security and privacy-preserving measures, including pseudonymisation;

(c) the special categories of personal data processed for the purpose of this paragraph are subject to measures to ensure that the personal data processed are secured, protected, subject to suitable safeguards, including strict controls and documentation of the access, to avoid misuse and ensure only authorised persons have access to those personal data with appropriate confidentiality obligations;

(d) the special categories of personal data processed for the purpose of this paragraph are not to be transmitted, transferred or otherwise accessed by other parties;

(e) the special categories of personal data processed for the purpose of this paragraph are deleted once the bias has been corrected or the personal data has reached the end of its retention period, whatever comes first;

(f) the records of processing activities pursuant to Regulation (EU) 2016/679, Directive (EU) 2016/680 and Regulation (EU) 2018/1725 includes justification why the processing of special categories of personal data was strictly necessary to detect and correct biases and this objective could not be achieved by processing other data.

6. For the development of high-risk AI systems not using techniques involving the training of models, paragraphs 2 to 5 shall apply only to the testing data sets.