1. This Regulation applies to:
(a) providers placing on the market or putting into service AI systems or placing on the market general-purpose AI models in the Union, irrespective of whether those providers are established or who are located within the Union or in a third country;
(b) deployers of AI systems that have their place of establishment or who are located within the Union;
(c) providers and deployers of AI systems that have their place of establishment or who are located in a third country, where the output produced by the system is used in the Union;
(ca) importers and distributors of AI systems;
(cb) product manufacturers placing on the market or putting into service an AI system together with their product and under their own name or trademark;
(cc) authorised representatives of providers, which are not established in the Union;
(cc) affected persons that are located in the Union.
2. For AI systems classified as high-risk AI systems in accordance with Articles 6(1) and 6(2) related to products covered by Union harmonisation legislation listed in Annex II, section B only Article 84 of this Regulation shall apply. Article 53 shall apply only insofar as the requirements for high-risk AI systems under this Regulation have been integrated under that Union harmonisation legislation.
3. This Regulation shall not apply to areas outside the scope of EU law and in any event shall not affect the competences of the Member States concerning national security, regardless of the type of entity entrusted by the Member States to carry out the tasks in relation to those competences. This Regulation shall not apply to AI systems if and insofar placed on the market, put into service, or used with or without modification of such systems exclusively for military, defence or national security purposes, regardless of the type of entity carrying out those activities. This Regulation shall not apply to AI systems which are not placed on the market or put into service in the Union, where the output is used in the Union exclusively for military, defence or national security purposes, regardless of the type of entity carrying out those activities.
4. This Regulation shall not apply to public authorities in a third country nor to international organisations falling within the scope of this Regulation pursuant to paragraph 1, where those authorities or organisations use AI systems in the framework of international cooperation or agreements for law enforcement and judicial cooperation with the Union or with one or more Member States, under the condition that this third country or international organisations provide adequate safeguards with respect to the protection of fundamental rights and freedoms of individuals.
5. This Regulation shall not affect the application of the provisions on the liability of intermediary service providers set out in Chapter II, Section 4 of Directive 2000/31/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council [as to be replaced by the corresponding provisions of the Digital Services Act].
5a. This Regulation shall not apply to AI systems and models, including their output, specifically developed and put into service for the sole purpose of scientific research and development.
5a. Union law on the protection of personal data, privacy and the confidentiality of communications applies to personal data processed in connection with the rights and obligations laid down in this Regulation. This Regulation shall not affect Regulations (EU) 2016/679 and (EU) 2018/1725 and Directives 2002/58/EC and (EU) 2016/680, without prejudice to arrangements provided for in Article 10(5) and Article 54 of this Regulation.
5b. This Regulation shall not apply to any research, testing and development activity regarding AI systems or models prior to being placed on the market or put into service; those activities shall be conducted respecting applicable Union law. The testing in real world conditions shall not be covered by this exemption.
5b. This Regulation is without prejudice to the rules laid down by other Union legal acts related to consumer protection and product safety.
5c. This Regulation shall not apply to obligations of deployers who are natural persons using AI systems in the course of a purely personal non-professional activity.
5e. This Regulation shall not preclude Member States or the Union from maintaining or introducing laws, regulations or administrative provisions which are more favourable to workers in terms of protecting their rights in respect of the use of AI systems by employers, or to encourage or allow the application of collective agreements which are more favourable to workers.
5g. The obligations laid down in this Regulation shall not apply to AI systems released under free and open source licences unless they are placed on the market or put into service as high-risk AI systems or an AI system that falls under Title II and IV.
 Directive 2000/31/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 8 June 2000 on certain legal aspects of information society services, in particular electronic commerce, in the Internal Market (‘Directive on electronic commerce’) (OJ L 178, 17.7.2000, p. 1).